There are many types of edible oils. Here are the main ones:
One: cottonseed oil:
Usage: Stir-fry, stew.
Cottonseed oil is a cotton seed immersion oil that can be used for cooking and industrial use as raw materials.
Cottonseed oil contains a large amount of essential fatty acids, of which the highest content of linoleic acid can reach 44.0-55.0%. Linoleic acid can inhibit cholesterol in human blood and help protect human health. In addition, cottonseed oil also contains 21.6%-24.8% palmitic acid, 1.9-2.4% stearic acid, 18%-30% oleic acid, 0-0.1% arachidic acid, human body digestion and absorption rate of cotton oil It is 98%.
Two: Soybean oil:
Usage: Stir-fried, fried
Soybean oil is derived from soy seeds, which are the most produced oils in the world.
The color of soybean oil varies depending on the type of soybean seed coat and soybean. Generally it is light yellow, slightly green, dark brown and so on. The refined soybean oil is light yellow.
Soybean oil contains a large amount of linoleic acid. Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid and has important physiological functions. Young children lack linoleic acid, the skin becomes dry, the scales thicken, and the growth retardation; the lack of linoleic acid in the elderly can cause cataracts and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.
Soybean oil has an astringent taste and can be removed after refining, but there is a tendency to linger during storage. Due to the linolenic acid and iso-linoleic acid, the soybean meal is minimized by selective hydrogenation, and the formation of isolinoleic acid is avoided, which basically eliminates the “aftertaste” phenomenon of soybean oil.
Three: rapeseed oil:
Usage: Stir-fried, fried
Rapeseed oil is an oil made from rapeseed, also known as “vegetable oil”. It is one of the varieties of edible oil in China.
Rapeseed oil is dark green with a slight greenish color, and has an unpleasant smell and spicy taste. It is generally eaten by alkali, decolorization, deodorization and the like. Rapeseed oil has a high viscosity, and the saponification value is the smallest in the semi-drying oil and the erucic acid content is high, so that the rapeseed oil can be identified.
Rapeseed oil has certain economic value. As an edible oil, its digestion utilization rate can reach 99%. In addition, the industry can also be used as an important raw material for lubricating oils, fire oils, metal preservatives and light chemicals.
Four: Coconut oil:
Coconut oil is derived from coconut meat (dry) and is white or light yellow fat. Coconut meat (dry) contains 65%-74% oil and 4%-7% moisture. Coconut trees grow on islands in the tropics or on the mainland coast. China’s main producing areas are Hainan Province, Leizhou Peninsula, Yunnan Province and southern Taiwan Province.
Because coconut oil contains more than 90% saturated fatty acids and volatile fatty acid content of 15%-20% (including water-soluble fatty acids accounted for 2%), coconut oil has the following characteristics:
1. There is a certain solubility in ethanol. A portion of coconut oil is soluble in two parts of ethanol (95%).
2. It is in a solidified state at room temperature.
3. It is more susceptible to rancidity because coconut oil contains a significant amount of lower fatty acids.
4. Coconut oil has a smaller average molecular weight.
5. Coconut oil has a small iodine value and a large saponification value. The percentage of coconut oil in other oils can be calculated from the saponification value of the mixed oil.
6. The unsaponifiable content of coconut oil is about 0.3%, of which two-thirds are sterols, as well as tocopherols and squalene.
Coconut oil is a good edible fat and a good raw material for margarine. There is very little lipid content in coconut oil. Coconut oil is the main formula of soap soap base, and its medium-length carbon chain fatty acid content is the main raw material for making marine soap.
Five: blending oil:
Blending oil is also known as high oil.
It is an edible oil prepared by proportioning two or more refined fats (except flavor oil) according to the needs of use. The blending oil is clear and transparent and can be used as a simmering, frying, frying, frying or salad oil.
The blending oil is generally selected from refined soybean oil, rapeseed oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, cottonseed oil, etc., and may also be supplemented with refined rice bran oil, corn germ oil, camellia seed oil, safflower seed oil, wheat germ Special oil esters such as oil. The processing process is: selecting the above two or more refined oil esters according to requirements, and then deacidifying, decolorizing, deodorizing, and synthesizing into a blending oil. The shelf life of blended oil is generally 12 months. Currently, blending oil is only a corporate standard and there is no national standard. In the future, the development prospect of blending oil is good, and it will become one of the favorite oils for consumers.
There are the following types:
1) Nutritional blending oil (or linoleic acid blending oil), generally based on sunflower oil, with soybean oil, corn germ oil and cottonseed oil, adjusted to linoleic acid content of about 60%, oleic acid content of about 30% The soft fat content is about 10%.
2) Economically tempered oil, mainly based on rapeseed oil, with a certain proportion of soybean oil, the price is relatively low.
3) flavor blending oil, is to mix rapeseed oil, cottonseed oil, rice bran oil and aroma oil with a strong flavor into a “light peanut oil”, or blend the first three oils with sesame oil into a “light taste” Sesame oil
4) Frying and blending oil, using cottonseed oil, rapeseed oil, and palm oil in a certain proportion to prepare a frying blending oil with low erucic acid, balanced fatty acid composition, good shortening performance and high smoke point. The various fats and oils used in the above-mentioned blending oils are all smelted salad oils except sesame oil, peanut oil and palm oil.
Six: corn oil:
Corn oil, also known as maize oil, is an oil extracted from corn embryos.
The fat in corn embryos is generally between 17% and 45%, accounting for more than 80% of total corn fat. Therefore, corn embryo is a good resource-rich raw material for oil production. Corn oil is a high-quality edible vegetable oil, which contains 86% of unsaturated fatty acids, 56% of which is linoleic acid, the body absorption rate is over 97%; it is rich in vitamin E, and vitamin E is a kind Natural antioxidants, specially added to vitamin E in order to prevent oxidation in many oily foods. Vitamin E has a certain effect on cell division and delaying aging in human body. The vitamin E content of corn oil is second only to wheat germ oil. After deodorization, it still contains 0.8% to 1.2% of oil weight. There is also a small amount of auxiliary sulphur in corn oil, which also has antioxidant properties; Phospholipids have the effect of preventing aging, which can lower the body’s cholesterol content, enhance the body’s muscles, the function of the heart and vascular system, and improve the body’s resistance.
The fatty acids of corn oil are structurally stable due to their regular arrangement in the triglyceride. At the same time, the general oil and fat can accelerate the oxidation of chlorophyll under the action of light, while the corn oil has no chlorophyll, so the corn oil is stable. . For the above reasons, corn oil has considerable stability even in deep frying and has a longer shelf life than other oils.
The color of the corn oil is golden and transparent, and it is very fragrant. It is very suitable for quick-cooking and frying oil. It can maintain the color and fragrance of vegetables and food without losing the nutritional value.
Corn oil is rich in linoleic acid and is a raw material for the manufacture of pharmaceuticals such as Maitong and Yishouning in the pharmaceutical industry. The corn germ oil was started in the United States, trial production in 1890, and mass production in 20 years. Because its raw materials are by-products of processing corn, it is rich in resources and has many favorable conditions. It has grown to the end of the 1970s and has an annual output of 200,000 tons. Other countries in the world such as North Korea, Mexico and Yugoslavia also have certain production scales.
Seven: Tea Oil:
Tea oil is taken from camellia seed (58%-60% oil) and is one of the specialty oils in China.
Camellia is a Camellia, perennial evergreen shrub or small tree. Hunan Province has grown in all provinces, with Hunan being the most. The tea oil is light yellow, clear and transparent, and has a fragrant smell.
Refined tea oil is a good edible oil. Its chemical composition and physical and chemical constants are similar to those of olive oil. The content of oleic acid is above 80%, and the content of linoleic acid and saturated fatty acids is less.
In addition to food, tea oil can be used as a raw material for the production of hair oil and soap.
Eight: sesame oil (sesame oil, sesame oil)
Sesame oil is obtained from sesame seeds (about 50% oil and contains about 25% protein). The sesame oil (called “big groove oil”) prepared by the conventional method is light yellow and has a light fragrance. The sesame oil (also known as “scented oil”, “small sesame oil” or “small milled sesame oil”) obtained by direct fire roasting after water substitute or pressing method is reddish brown and has a special special fragrance. It is a meal of our people. The finest cold fat. It has a high nutritional value and is known as the “King of Fats” in the East. In the West, it is the “Queen of Oil Crops”, which shows people’s love for sesame and its oil.
The fatty acid composition of sesame oil is characterized by a small content of saturated fatty acids, but sesame oil is still very stable, because the oil contains more unsaponifiable matter, mainly sterol, sesame phenol, sesame phenolic forest and sesamin. Sesame phenol is a natural antioxidant that is not found in other vegetable oils. It makes sesame and sesame oil a “longevity food.”
Sesame oil is widely used. In addition to food, it is also widely used in health foods, pharmaceuticals and metals, and printing and dyeing industries. Like olive oil and fragrant peanut oil, sesame oil is an all-natural oil that can be used directly without any refining.
Sesame oil is also an essential raw material for the production of many medicines and cosmetics.
Nine: rice bran oil:
The chemical composition of rice bran is mainly sugar, fat and protein, in addition to more ash and vitamins. The oil content varies depending on the variety, usually between 12% and 20%. The oil content of glutinous rice bran is higher than that of glutinous rice bran. Rice bran oil is generally prepared by direct leaching.糠粕 can be used as feed. Rice bran contains about 5% calcium phytate and can be raised to produce phytic acid and inositol.
Rice bran oil has very good antioxidant stability, mainly due to its complex natural antioxidants. In addition to natural tocopherols (average total tocopherol content of 400 mg/kg oil), the oil also contains squalene and various ferulic acid esters, all of which contribute to antioxidant activity.
The refined rice bran oil has a light yellow color and contains 80% or more of unsaturated fatty acids in the oil. The oleic acid content is high, so the human body has a high digestion and absorption rate of rice bran oil. Rice bran oil has the function of lowering blood lipids in human body; it is a good edible fat. Due to the relatively high cost of rice bran oil refining and low oil yield, rice bran oil can only be used in large quantities for the manufacture of soaps, lubricating oils and fatty acids.
Ten: Olive oil:
Olive oil is an excellent non-drying oil. It is one of the most important and oldest oils in the world. This oil is widely consumed by people in the Mediterranean countries.
Olive oil is taken from the fruit of an evergreen olive tree. The whole fruit contains 35%-70% oil (dry basis), and its pulp contains more than 75% oil. The shape of the olive oil is closely related to the oil making process. The high quality olive oil can only be obtained by cold pressing, and it needs to be carried out from low pressure to high pressure. The olive oil obtained from the low pressure head can be consumed without refining. The oil is light yellowish green with a special mild scent and taste. It also has a low acid value (usually 0.2-2.0) and is still transparent at low temperatures (close to 10 ° C). Therefore low pressure olive oil is the ideal cold oil and cooking oil.
The color of the olive oil is deepened with the increase of the pressure of the oil press: light yellow, yellow green, blue green, blue to blue black. Olive oil with a deep color has a high acid value. When the acid value is greater than 3, the oil taste becomes thick and irritating, and it is not suitable for consumption. Dark olive oil has an increased specific gravity. If the relative density of the light oil (15 ° C / 15 ° C) is greater than 0.918, it indicates that other oils are doped. Vegetable oils contain a certain amount of olive oil, which can be determined by the higher squalene content in the olive oil.
Olive oil differs from other vegetable oils in that it has a lower iodine value and maintains a liquid state when the temperature is lowered to 0 °C.
Olive oil contains more than 700mg/100g of oil, the natural antioxidant, trichostene (squalene). In addition, olive oil has a low content of highly unsaturated fatty acids, so its storage stability is high.
Olive oil has a wide range of uses. Most of them are used for cooking and salad dressing, as well as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, lubricating oils, Turkish red oil, textile oils and sulfonated oils, as well as soaps. The soap made from olive oil has a white texture and strong foaming power, and is an excellent raw material for the soap making industry.
Eleven: Linseed oil:
Linseed oil is taken from the seeds of flax. An annual herb of the family Flax. Native to Central Asia, it is now grown in some countries in temperate and tropical regions. Mainly the United States, Argentina, India and the former Soviet Union. China’s northwestern regions and Inner Mongolia produce the most, and there are also plants in the northeast and north China.
The whole flaxseed oil content is between 29% and 44%, the shell content is 20%-45%, and the shell also contains about 17%-20% of the oil, so the flaxseed oil is generally not shelled.
Linseed oil is golden yellow, linseed oil is dark amber and has a special odor. This odor is caused not only by volatile impurities in the oil, but more importantly because the oil contains more highly unsaturated fatty acids. The odor oil after deodorization has an aftertaste. Fresh linseed oil can be eaten.
Twelve: safflower oil:
The safflower seed, also known as safflower, chrysanthemum, red orchid, and red crocus, is an annual biloba herbaceous plant. The prickly nature of safflower and the demanding requirements for environmental conditions limit its worldwide distribution and are therefore a typical small oil crop. The history of the introduction of safflower in China has only been more than ten years. Nowadays, China has a certain cultivation area in Heiling, Liaoning, Xinjiang, Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.
The safflower seed oil production process is mainly based on shelling pre-pressing and leaching. The safflower oil is bright orange and delicious, and the amount of linoleic acid in the oil is higher than other oils (up to 56%-80%). Edible safflower oil can lower cholesterol, and can be processed into margarine, mayonnaise and salad oil. It is a good edible fat. In addition to traditional Chinese medicine, the corolla of safflower can also extract natural dyes such as red, yellow and orange from various color corollas and food coloring. The orange stalk of safflower and the cake after oil pressing are high-quality feed for livestock.
Thirteen: walnut oil:
In addition to being directly used as a nutraceutical oil, walnut oil can also be used as an additive in the production of cakes and nutritious foods. In industry, it is a kind of dry oil. After drying into a film, the color will not yellow, and it can produce fine paints and paints.
Walnut oil is a precious nutrient and health oil. At present, the value of walnut oil in the international market has doubled and is very popular. In the international edible oil market, the price is as high as 8,000 to 10,000 US dollars / ton, which is more than ten times that of ordinary soybean and rapeseed oil, and the supply is in short supply.
China’s walnut resources are abundant, but it has not been comprehensively exploited. At present, the development of walnut oil is still in its infancy. The development and production of walnut nutrient health oil has good economic and social benefits for improving people’s lives, promoting people’s health, expanding foreign trade, and earning foreign exchange through exports. As a new type of nutritious health food with promising future, walnut oil has a broad market and is very competitive in domestic and international markets.
Fourteen: Palm oil:
Palm oil is a kind of vegetable oil that can partially replace other oils. It can be replaced by soybean oil, peanut oil, sunflower oil, coconut oil, lard and butter. Due to the relationship between palm oil and various oils and fats, the price of palm oil also fluctuates with the movement of the world’s general oil prices. At the same time, the price of palm oil fluctuates greatly.
Palm oil is widely used in the world for cooking and food manufacturing. It is used as cooking oil, crunchy fat and margarine. Like other edible oils, palm oil is easily digested, absorbed, and promotes health. Palm oil is an important ingredient in fat and has a mild property and is a good material for making food. From the combination of palm oil, its high solids glycerin content keeps the food stable from hydrogenation and effectively resists oxidation. It is also suitable for the hot climate to become a good condiment for pastry and bakery products. Due to several properties of palm oil, it is very popular among food manufacturing.
Fifteen: peanut oil:
Peanut oil is light yellow and transparent, with bright color, fragrant smell and delicious taste. It is an edible oil that is easy to digest. Peanut oil contains more than 80% of unsaturated fatty acids (including 41.2% oleic acid and 37.6% linoleic acid). It also contains 19.9% of saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid, stearic acid and arachidic acid.
From the above content, the fatty acid composition of peanut oil is better, and it is easy for the human body to digest and absorb. According to foreign data, the use of peanut oil can decompose cholesterol in the body into bile acids and excrete it, thereby lowering the plasma cholesterol content. In addition, peanut oil also contains sterol, wheat germ, phospholipid, vitamin E, choline and other substances beneficial to the human body. Regular consumption of peanut oil can prevent skin from aging, protect blood vessel walls, prevent thrombosis, and help prevent arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Choline in peanut oil can also improve the memory of the human brain and delay the decline of brain function.
Sixteen: Sunflower oil:
The refined sunflower oil is clear and bright yellow or blue-yellow, with a fragrant smell and pure taste. The composition of fatty acids in sunflower oil is affected by climatic conditions. The sunflower oil produced in cold regions contains about 15% oleic acid and about 70% linoleic acid. The sunflower oil produced in warm regions contains about 65% oleic acid and linoleic acid 20 %about. The human digestibility of sunflower oil is 96.5%. It is rich in linoleic acid, which has a significant effect on lowering cholesterol, preventing hardening of the arteries and preventing coronary heart disease. In addition, the most physiologically active a tocopherol in sunflower oil is higher than the general vegetable oil. Moreover, the ratio of linoleic acid content to vitamin E content is relatively balanced, which is convenient for human body to absorb and utilize. Therefore, sunflower oil is an excellent edible oil with high nutritional value and good for human health.
Seventeen: Grape seed oil:
Grape seed oil is a seed extract of the grape family grape.
Chemical composition: linoleic acid, other various unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin F, minerals, protein, linseed oleic acid, chlorophyll and the like.
Grape seed oil has the functions of lowering blood cholesterol, preventing thrombosis, expanding blood vessels, and having nutrient brain cells and regulating autonomic nerves, thereby effectively preventing various diseases caused by cardiovascular sclerosis.
Eighteen: salad oil
Salad oil is commonly known as salad oil. It is a refined food oil that has been refined and processed. It can be used for raw food. It is named for the western salad “salad” salad. The salad oil is light yellow, clear, transparent, odorless, and has a good taste. It is used for cooking without foaming and less smoke. It can be kept clear and transparent under the condition of 0 degree for 5.5 hours (except peanut salad oil). It is mainly used for cold meal oil in addition to cooking frying oil. It can also be used as margarine, shortening, mayonnaise and each. A raw material oil for seasoning oil. The salad oil is generally processed into a hair oil by using high-quality oil, and then processed into a finished product by processes such as degumming, deacidification, decolorization, deodorization, dewaxing, and degreasing. The packaging container for salad oil should be special, clean, dry and sealed to meet food hygiene and safety requirements. Do not mix other edible oils and non-edible oils, mineral oils. The shelf life is generally 6 months. Currently, the salad oils supplied on the market are soybean salad oil, rapeseed salad oil, sunflower seed salad oil and rice bran salad oil.
Raw material alias: salad oil
Raw material classification: oils and fats
Edible tips: 25 grams per day
Raw material introduction
Salad oil, also translated as “salad oil”, is an edible oil made by vegetable oil after five processes of deacidification, de-mixing, dephosphorization, decolorization and deodorization. It is characterized by clear and translucent color, fresh and light smell, and no discoloration when heated. No foam, very little soot, and no aflatoxin and cholesterol. High-quality salad oil should be packed tightly, no leakage, clear and transparent appearance, no obvious precipitation or other visible impurities, small glass bottles or ceramic jars should be kept, and the lid should be sealed in time and stored in a cool place. The shelf life is about 6 months.
1. The salad oil and blending oil contain no carcinogenic substances aflatoxin and cholesterol, which have protective effects on the body;
2. It is rich in unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, which has the effect of lowering blood lipids and blood cholesterol, and can prevent cardiovascular diseases to a certain extent;
3. Contains certain bean phospholipids, which are beneficial to the development of nerves, blood vessels and brain.
Most people can eat
1. Salad oil can be used for frying, frying, frying, and cold salads to maintain the original taste and color of vegetables and other foods.
2. The oil has a certain shelf life, and the oil that has been left for too long should not be eaten.
3. It can be used directly for cold salad, but it is best to use it after heating.
4. The nutritional value of salad oil repeatedly heated by high temperature is destroyed and should not be eaten. Oils that have been repeatedly heated at high temperatures should be avoided.
5. Try to avoid overeating. Although salad oil has the effect of preventing cardiovascular disease, excessive consumption can have certain negative effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and it is easy to cause weight gain.
The nutrients contained per 100 grams of salad oil are as follows:
Heat (898.00 kcal)
Fat (99.80 g)
Vitamin E (24.01 mg)
Calcium (18.00 mg)
Phosphorus (1.00 mg)
Sodium (5.10 mg)
Magnesium (1.00 mg)
Iron (1.70 mg)
Zinc (0.23 mg)
Copper (0.05 mg)
Manganese (0.01 mg)
Potassium (3.00 mg)
Cholesterol (64.00 mg)