1.Camellia oleifera (Camellia oleifera)
Perennial evergreen shrubs or small trees of the tea family, having a yellowish brown bark and smooth, subdivision. Large white flowers are also known as “white tea” in autumn. It is a unique woody edible oil plant in China and the most important edible oil tree species in the low hilly areas of the south of the Yangtze River. It has been cultivated for more than 2000 years in China.
Camellia oleifera grows fast, bears early fruit, has a long life span, has high quality and yield, strong adaptability, poor ridge resistance and drought resistance. It is the main tree species for rehabilitating red soil and can be widely planted in mountainous areas. It mainly distributes in 500 counties (cities) of 15 provinces, cities and autonomous regions in subtropical areas. The cultivated area is about 4 million hectares (60 million mu), and the main type is common Camellia oleifera. Hunan is the most widely planted Province in China. The cultivated area of the province is about 167 million hectares (20 million mu), and the area and output rank first in the country, accounting for 14% of the forestry land in the province, which is the largest economic forest species in the province.
The oil content of Camellia oleifera seed can be as high as 59.2%, which is one of the highest oil plants in China. Common Camellia oleifera is divided into two types: cold dew seed and box-drop seed. The annual output of Camellia oleifera is 700,000 tons, and the output of Camellia oleifera is 15-180,000 tons, ranking first among woody edible oils in the country. The content of unsaturated fatty acids in Camellia oleifera seeds is more than 90%, mainly oleic acid and linoleic acid, which do not contain erucic acid and are not easily polluted by Aspergillus flavus. Camellia oil is also an industrial oil, such as lubricating oil and rust removal.
Zhejiang Changshan County, there is a “tea king” in the late Qing Dynasty, height 5.5m, covers an area of 64m2, with an annual output of up to more than 250 kg of tea seed, tea oil production of about 17 kg. In addition to oil tea, tea tree seeds also contain oils, the kernel oil rate of about 16%, the crude oil bitter taste and smell, color is brown and yellow, refined edible. The oil extraction of Camellia oleifera seed is still the main method in China.
2. tung tree (Verincid fordli):
Euphorbia deciduous broad-leaved trees. Tungoiltree is China’s specialty woody oil plant production in the world, mainly in the Yellow River in 17 provinces (regions) of the southern area of 870 thousand hectares, oil production reached 62 thousand and 460 tons. It is also known as the four largest woody oil plants in China, including Camellia oleifera, walnut and urchin. There are 6 species of tung oil grown in the world. The three year old tung tree and the Millennium tree are the most common in China. In the past three years, Tung’s scientific name, tung oil tree, has been growing fast, with a high yield and a fruit bearing period of 20 to 30 years. The famous tung tree of tung tree is more than three years tall, more than 10 meters, and has a long tree age. Tung oil is the oil extracted from the seeds of tung oil tree. The oil extracted from the seeds of the tung oil tree is called wood oil, and its quality is slightly inferior.
Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hubei four provinces of China’s production of tung oil, Sichuan oil production ranks first in the country. Guizhou Xiushan’s “Xiu oil” and Hongjiang “Hongyou” of Hunan are the top quality of tung oil in China. Sichuan Liangshan Tung fast growth, flowering and fruiting early, high yield, oil yield more than 34%, the highest 37.8%, higher than the province inside and outside. Tung oil in Liangshan is famous for its light color and good oil quality.
Tungoiltree seed for the oil is known as the main component of tung oil, Eleostearic Acid, belonging to the unsaturated acid is excellent coating properties. Tung oil, as an important industrial oil, has a long history in China. Tung oil and wood oil are brown or golden color, excellent drying oil, shiny, not edible, tung oil has the characteristics of waterproof, breathable, light weight, good gloss, strong adhesion, no electricity, hot and cold resistance, acid and alkali resistance, corrosion resistance etc.. Widely used in paints, plastics, synthetic rubber, electrical appliances, artificial leather, synthetic gasoline, ink and other manufacturing.
3.Jatropha curcas L.
Euphorbia deciduous shrubs or small trees, also known as green wood, false peanuts, smelly Tung. It is 3-4 meters tall, has smooth bark, and its seeds are oblong, and its seed coat is gray and black. Native to Brazil, widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions in our country. It is mainly produced in Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan and other provinces.
Jatropha curcas is a photophilic plant with strong and developed roots. It can grow on dry, barren and degraded soil as an oil crop with strong drought resistance and barren ability. It also has soft tissue, water content, juice, toxicity and is not easy to burn and resist diseases and insect pests because of its branches, trunks and roots. The dry hot valley in the wild seeds, usually cooked a year, less two crops a year, branch and stem with the ability of regeneration, seed germination rate was above 90%. Jatropha curcas grows rapidly and has strong vitality. In some places, a continuous forest community can be formed. It is suitable for planting in dry hot valley areas with tropical, subtropical, and harsh rainfall conditions. Jatropha curcas fruit can be put into operation in 3 years, and in 5 years.
The highest oil content of wild Jatropha fruit is about 60%, the average yield per mu of Jatropha nuts 650 kg, can be processed to extract about 180 kilograms of bio diesel”. The experts are collecting Jatropha curcas resources from all over the world, the construction of the plant gene pool.
4.Light Leather tree (Corpus wilsoniana)
A deciduous tree of dogwood with a fruit period of 10-11 months. Pulp and seeds can be edible and medicinal, rich in oil, is one of the main woody oil tree species in China. Mainly distributed in south and central China, tropical or subtropical areas of Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Guangdong, Guangxi. It is concentrated in the sparse forest at the elevation of–1000m. Can be planted by sowing method, light skin tree has wild characteristics, happy light, in good drainage, moist and fertile loam growth exuberant, deep root, germination, strong especially suitable for limestone mountain planting.
Wide adaptability, cold resistance, heat resistance, early, resistance to poverty bumps, is expected to produce low-cost raw materials. It was determined that the seed weight of the peel Tree 71–83 g, the oil content of the whole fruit was 30.0-34%, the oil content of the pulp was 52–55%, the seed oil content was 14–17%, and the saponification value was 195. 9; Iodine value 104–116.8; non-saponification 1.
3%. At present, Hunan Province has established a large area of light skin tree plantation base, southern Hunan,
There are large areas of mixed forests and scattered forests in Xiangxi, which provide convenience for the production of biodiesel. Compared with rapeseed, combined with China’s comprehensive implementation of the conversion of farmland to forest ecological project, a large area of biodiesel raw materials forest, can change the disadvantage of barren mountains as an advantage, while providing China with the future development and use of biodiesel to provide raw material base guarantee。